What is elucidating
It has been well established that high levels of ACD within the periphery are associated with aversive symptoms (i.e., flushing, headaches, etc.). The drug disulfuram (tetraethylthiuramdisulphide), which has been approved for the treatment of alcoholism, exacerbates the aversive symptoms of ACD by inhibiting the metabolism of ACD thereby encouraging individuals to abstain from Et OH consumption. doi: 10.2174/156802609789630956 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Griffiths, P.
The main principles underlying the “pro-drug” theory assert that (1) following Et OH consumption, Et OH concentrations within the body are unable to reach levels that adequately affect the central nervous system (CNS), (2) various behavioral and physiological effects of Et OH endure well past the bioavailability of Et OH in the system, and (3) manipulation of the metabolism of Et OH, and the subsequent formation of the metabolites and/or byproducts, within the system affects most, if not all, of the CNS effects of Et OH. Alcohol induces formation of morphine precursors in the striatum of rats. However, while several lines of research have emerged focusing on the many different facets of Et OH addiction the biological basis of the reinforcing properties of Et OH has not been completely established. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0773.1949.tb03384.x Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Hald, J., Jacobsen, E., and Larsen, V. The rate of acetaldehyde metabolism in isolated livers and hind limbs of rabbits treated with antabuse (tetraethylthiuramdisulphide). Opposing theories have emerged with some suggesting that it is the action of the Et OH molecule itself that underlies the rewarding properties of Et OH. Two decades later, Williams (1937) suggested that the cure of alcoholism may have been discovered as workers at a rubber plant that were exposed to the compound tetramethylthiuram experienced similar aversive symptoms to those outlined above when they consumed Et OH. L., Muntoni, F., Collu, M., Vargiu, L., and Mereu, G. Low doses of ethanol activate dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Soon thereafter, two researchers, Erik Jacobsen and Jens Hald, began examining tetraethylthiuramdisulphide (disulfuram) as a possible treatment for intestinal worms.